Category: How To

New Way of Making a Slogan

Original Title:

Sound Advice for Creating a Slogan: Forget Words

For a Lasting Impression, Think Beyond the Written Word

By . Published in Advertising Age on

We live in a world of words. Our memos are written in words; our emails are written in words; our marketing plans are written in words.

Yet, there are no words in your mind. There are only sounds.

Watch a child learning to read. They will often move their lips. Why is that? Because they are translating the words they are trying to read into sounds they can understand.

Adults don’t move their lips. But they still convert words into sounds in order to understand them. That’s why it takes time for a printed word to be understood.

There’s a reason for this delay. A mind consists of two brains: A left brain that handles sounds and a right brain that handles visuals.

A printed word is a visual that enters your mind in your right brain where it is decoded and then sent to your left brain where it is transformed into sound. That takes time, approximately 40 milliseconds.

That doesn’t sound like much, but if our stoplights were verbal instead of visual, you could expect even more carnage on our highways. (Your right brain recognizes visual symbols without needing verbal translations. That’s why you can react quickly when a stoplight changes color.)

Your mind has some 100 billion neurons.

Each neuron has an axon that branches out to carry electrochemical signals to other neurons. That allows a mind to establish hundreds of billions of connections between neurons.

Sounds that are related to each other apparently establish connections in minds. That’s why rhyme and other memory-enhancing techniques can greatly increase the memorability of a slogan or a brand name.

That’s what makes alliterative brand names like Bed, Bath & Beyond memorable.

But do companies recognize the critical importance of “sounds” in the formulation of their company or brand names or their advertising messages? Apparently not.

There are 30 Major League baseball teams. But only four of these teams use an alliterative name: New York Yankees, Chicago Cubs, Philadelphia Phillies and Pittsburgh Pirates.

Advertisers often make the same mistake. Marketing managers will evaluate potential brand names or advertising slogans by writing them on flip charts or presenting them in PowerPoint slides. Or distributing them in memos or emails.

All in print, of course.

Marketing managers are so used to working in print they often forget about the sounds their brand names or slogans might convey.

Techniques to increase memorability

There are five techniques to increase the memorability of advertising slogans:

  • Rhyme
  • Alliteration
  • Repetition
  • Reversal
  • Double-entendre.

By now, you might think companies and their advertising agencies would be wise to these techniques. But it’s surprising how few slogans use any of five.

In a survey taken last month of 1,061 advertising slogans, only 175 slogans, or 16%, used any one of the five. And many of these uses were trivial.

Yet marketing history is filled with powerful slogans using the five memory-enhancing techniques. Here are some examples.

Rhyme
In the American market, the leading coffee brand used to be Maxwell House. The brand even had a clever slogan, Good to the last drop. (In 1999, Advertising Age ranked it as the sixth-best advertising slogan of the 20th century.)

Today, the leading coffee brand is Folgers and not Maxwell House. Folgers’ memorable slogan: The best part of waking up is Folgers in your cup.

Why breakfast when coffee is consumed all day long? One reason is that “waking up” rhymes with “cup.”

But there’s another reason, too. You generally need something specific to create a memorable slogan. And the best way to create a specific benefit is by “narrowing your focus.”

Folgers did that by narrowing its focus to breakfast.

In the 1920s, Mather & Crowther, a London advertising agency, was hired to promote apples. The agency lives on today as Ogilvy & Mather and the apple slogan they created is just as famous as the agency.

An apple a day keeps the doctor away.

Most Americans know the motto of France: Liberté. Égalité. Fraternité. But most French people don’t know the motto of America: In God we trust.

One uses rhymes. The other does not.

Alliteration
M&Ms is the leading candy brand in America, thanks in part to an alliterative slogan that also communicates a key attribute: M&Ms melt in your mouth . . . not in your hands.

Again, narrowing the focus to a single benefit (doesn’t melt in your hand like a chocolate bar) allowed the brand to create a memorable slogan.

And many of our most-famous brand names owe part of their success to alliteration: Coca-Cola, Dirt Devil, Dunkin’ Donuts, Mickey Mouse, PayPal, Range Rover and many others.

Repetition
Years ago, Federal Express tried to compete in the air-cargo business with market leader Emery Air Freight by cutting prices. That didn’t work. FedEx (the current name of the company) lost millions of dollars.

Then FedEx narrowed its focus to “overnight” service. They could have said, “The overnight air-cargo carrier,” but they didn’t.

Instead, they used a slogan that made FedEx the market leader: When it absolutely, positively has to be there overnight,

(Today FedEx is a global air-cargo carrier with $47 billion in annual revenues, second in size only to United Parcel Service.)

Reversal
In 1952 when Frank Perdue became president of Perdue Farms, a chicken processor, the company had revenue of $6 million. In 2005 when he died, the company employed 19,000 people and had revenues of $2.8 billion.

In between, Frank Perdue was the spokesperson for the brand. His bald head and big nose made people think he looked like a chicken. Purdue’s slogan: It takes a tough man to make a tender chicken.

“My chickens eat better than you do,” he told consumers in some of the 200 different television commercials he appeared in.

Double-entendre
What slogan did Advertising Age rank as the top slogan of the 20th century?

A diamond is forever, the slogan of The De Beers Group of Companies, and first used in 1938.

Three years later, diamond sales were up 55%.

A diamond is the hardest substance on earth and should last forever. A diamond ring is the symbol of a love that could last forever, too. A double-entendre that creates an emotional bond with consumers.

In an era where advertisers change their slogans every year, the longevity of the De Beers slogan is remarkable. It’s still used today, even though it’s now 78 years old.

As the De Beers slogan illustrates, double-entendre is perhaps the most-powerful memory-enhancing technique you can use. The two different meanings oscillate in consumers’ minds, creating memories that are hard to forget.

By using one of these five memory-enhancing techniques, you can create a slogan that could last forever, too.

 

New Way to Look at Marketing

Original title:

Forget Your Ps; Mind the Four Ms of Marketing

It’s All About Merchandise, Market, Media and Message

By . Published in Advertising Age on .

Fifty-six years ago, E. Jerome McCarthy conceived the 4Ps of marketing: Product, price, place and promotion.

Today, product is still the starting point for most marketing programs but the other three Ps are not particular helpful. Price would seem to be part of product. And Place and Promotion are fuzzy concepts.

Instead of the 4Ps, a marketing mix for the 21st century might include the 4Ms: merchandise, market, media and message.

Step 1: Merchandise
In the five decades since McCarthy first proposed the 4Ps, the concept of marketing has broadened to include many other things besides products: Services, people, ideas, movements, organizations, cities, states, countries and countless other conceptual ideas. All of which could benefit from marketing thinking and execution.

Instead of product, perhaps a better term to describe the identity to be marketed is merchandise, which could include almost anything.

So the first step in any marketing program is to identify your merchandise in great detail. Its name, its price, its competition, its size, its weight, its position in consumers’ minds.

Step 2: Market
One of the major reasons to use a marketing-mix approach is the order of the steps. As most marketing people would agree, Step 1 is a thorough study of the product, service, person or conceptual idea to be marketed.

Step 2 is to identify the market to be conquered. Yet too many marketing people skip this and quickly move to Step 4: Message.

Earlier this year Automotive News and Advertising Age recently reported on the story behind Nissan’s new advertising efforts. Christian Meunier, the new U.S. sales chief, criticized the Nissan brand as “vague” despite billions of dollars spent on ads.

So he locked a group of 35 to 40 marketing and advertising professionals from four agencies in a room for about two weeks to generate new ideas.

The idea they developed? Commercials that show how Nissan cars and trucks can help consumers overcome everyday challenges ranging from potholes and bad weather to running late in dropping children off at school.

The new campaign is called “Take on,” but still includes Nissan’s slogan, “Innovation that excites.”

But what’s the market for Nissan vehicles? A brand that includes sedans, sports cars, SUVs, vans, minivans, trucks and commercial vehicles. And, of course, electric cars. That’s typical thinking: Moving from Step 1 to Step 4 without first figuring out what the Step (2) Market should be.

Marketing is like warfare. No military general would attack on all fronts. Rather the point of attack is crucial to an army’s long-term success. And so it is in marketing.

Quite often a company needs to change its product line in order to zero in on a specific market. Subaru dropped all two-wheel-drive vehicles in order to focus on four-wheel drive.

Why is Starbucks so successful? (With domestic sales of $16 billion last year, Starbucks is second only to McDonald’s in restaurant revenues.)

You might assume that Starbucks is winning the coffee wars with better coffee. But that’s only part of the answer. Starbucks focused on the high-end coffee market, with a price to match and an environment that enhanced the high-end idea.

“Fourbucks,” a derogatory nickname used by many customers and prospects, only reinforced the position of the brand at the high end of the market.

As long as there is competition in the marketplace, you can’t effectively appeal to everybody like Nissan is trying to do. That’s not marketing. Step 2: Market is absolutely critical. Pick a segment of the market to appeal to.

Step 3: Media
The next most-important decision to make is media. And if you are launching a new brand, your obvious choice is PR.

That’s exactly how Howard Schultz built the Starbucks brand. “It is difficult to launch a product through consumer advertising,” said Schultz, “because customers don’t really pay attention as they did in the past.”

In its first 10 years, Starbucks spent just $10 million (total) on advertising. And the company didn’t launch its first TV campaign until 26 years after its founding.

Many marketing managers believe a campaign should spread its advertising resources over a range of media. I think that’s wrong.

Every medium has its advantages and disadvantages. For maximum efficiency, I believe a marketing campaign should focus on the one medium that works best for its product or service.

Five years ago, the average marketing department spent 38% of its advertising budget on TV. Last year, the average marketing department spent exactly the same percentage on TV, 38%.

Is the trend to digital a good trend or not? It depends on the product. No one medium is best for every product or service.

TV is best for mass-market brands, especially brands that can use product demonstrations to differentiate their brands from competition.

Print is best for luxury brands like watches and jewelry.

Radio is best for brands with a strong verbal message, especially if that message can be expressed in rhyme or alliteration.

The Internet is best for brands that have news value. For example, brands that pioneer new categories. Furthermore, brands launched on the Internet do best with video campaigns, not just type messages.

Step 4: Message
The marketing mix ends with the selection of the message. Hopefully, a singular idea expressed in one medium with one target market.

How often does that happen? Not very often. For four reasons.

Merchandise is a mixture of many products and services. Take the four leading automobile brands: Ford, Chevrolet, Toyota and Honda. They all make virtually all types of vehicles.

Market. When you make everything under one brand name, you have no target market to appeal to. You have to appeal to everybody.

Media. A broad line of products designed for everybody doesn’t lend itself to any specific medium. To cover a wide range of products requires a wide range of media. That’s woefully inefficient.

Message. No wonder the slogans of the four largest automobile brands are nothing but mush.

  • Ford: “Go further.”
  • Chevrolet: “Find new roads.”
  • Toyota: “Let’s go places.”
  • Honda: “The power of dreams.”

Last year, these four brands spent a total of $2.4 billion on advertising. Perhaps these four brands could use a little marketing-mix thinking.

SBDC Event:

There are free seminars
being put up by the SBDC this August. See below:

Small Business Focus

Target Marketing
August 6, 2015, Location: Downey

Current or potential small business owners will benefit from this five week seminar series designed to present concepts and best practices of owning, opening and operating a business. Register today for the entire series of seminars or individual classes that fit your needs. For more visit:
www.longbeachsbdc.org/focus


Social Media Marketing + What’s new on Facebook and what it means for your Business
August 6, 2015
Location:
Pasadena

Pasadena Community Education
Center,

3035 E. Foothill Blvd.,
Pasadena CA 91107.
Room: 229
Date: August 6 2015
Day: Thursday
Time: 1:00pm – 3:00pm
Cost: Free

In this introductory session, we will review best practices, strategies, real world examples and offer ideas to show you how Social Media Marketing is a cost effective marketing tool. We will discuss: + What social media marketing really is and why use it
+ Introduction to social media channels and how to evaluate
+ what’s right for your business or organization + How small businesses are using these low-cost tools to gain visibility, develop relationships and drive sales and response
+ How to create valuable content for your social media marketing campaigns and time management + How to balance social media marketing with email marketing
and your other marketing efforts. Plus we will look at Facebook and how the game is changing for Business Pages REGISTRATION & MORE INFO,Click here

Presented by: MJ Finstrom & David Finstrom, HUTdogs


SBIR/STTR Intro Workshop August 11, 2015,
Location: Pasadena

The Pasadena SBDC and TriTech SBDC are working together to bring you a complimentary workshop that provides a detailed overview of the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs.

Presented by: Molly B. Schmid, Ph.D., TriTech Senior Consultant and Martin Kleckner III, Ph.D., TriTech Senior Consultant


Global Tech Summit
August 13, 2015,
Location: Playa Vista

This event is for innovative companies who are or will be using virtual/augmented reality as part of their growth and delivery strategy. Funded tech companies interested in online learning, artificial intelligence, gaming and wearable technology. Also startups looking for mentors and guidance.


Importing and Exporting

August 20, 2015,
Location: Cerritos

180To RSVP or for more information
please call (562) 860-5050

Everything you need to know about maximizing your profits. The topics included for this seminar are:

  • How do I import and/or export?
  • Learn how to expand your market
  • Strategies for a global economy
  • Access the resources you need to succeed
This seminar will take place Thursday, August 20th from 6:00 p.m.- 7:30 p.m. at The Skyline Room at Cerritos Library.

18025 Bloomfield Ave. Cerritos, CA 90703


Making the Next Step:
How to Grow Your Company
August 28, 2015
Location: Los Angeles

Most businesses plateau at different stages of development. Business owners looking to make the next step in growth will want to be aware of potential roadblocks holding them back: issues like legal compliance, accounting practices, or how business decisions are made. Learn about common impediments to growth and how to overcome them. This speaker engagement features Bixel advisor and friend, Douglas Korte. Visit the event site for more information.

REGISTER


LACI Cleantech Global Showcase
October 21-22, 2015
Location: Los Angeles

LACI’s Cleantech Global Showcase (GloSho) is an annual summit held in downtown Los Angeles where cleantech thought leaders and stakeholders from around the world meet to exchange ideas, facilitate trade and investment, and celebrate entrepreneurship and innovation. GloSho is the signature event of the Network for Global Innovation (NGIN) and furthers NGIN’s mission of opening world markets and connecting cleantech innovators wherever they reside.

REGISTER


Here’s the Money!

September 12, 2015
Location: Universal City

Join us in bringing education, resources, and business development opportunities to new, existing and
growing businesses throughout Los Angeles, San Fernando Valley & San Francisco.

At “Here’s the Money!”
Access to Capital Business Expo you will learn about the different sources for funding, how to grow your business capital, how to expand and/or improve your existing business, and much more!

REGISTER

Resources

Here are some resources that you, the entrepreneur, may be interested in.


Ray Carlson, our 80+ illustrious leader, highly recommends this website: Lioness of Africa

lionesslogo

Click on the logo above to go to website

Welcome to the digital home for Africa’s women entrepreneurs. We’re all about women entrepreneurs celebrating success, exchanging stories, connecting and networking, learning from like-minded women, and inspiring and mentoring the next generation of women-led startups in Africa.


And here is Ray Carlson’s one-page business plan which you can download and fill up.

 

Useful Websites:

  • wix.com – to start a free website
  • blogger.com – start a free blog
  • pinterest.com – good source for ideas
  • udemy.com – affordable online education on almost any subject
  • travelingboy.com – for writers who love to travel
  • paypal.com, westernunion.com, xoom.com – for monetary transactions
  • youtube.com
  • facebook.com – the best place for social media
  • linkedin.com

Seven B-to-B Marketing Trends That Will Shape 2015

Marketers, Agency Execs Offer Predictions and Outline Challenges for the New Year
By Kate Maddox. Published on January 13, 2015

(Taken from: AdAge.com)

Data and automated messaging are hot topics, but b-to-b marketers say their marketing must get more personal in 2015. “We need b-to-b to be more human,” said Andy Goldberg, global creative director at GE. That sentiment was echoed by other marketers and agency execs who shared their predictions for the top b-to-b trends of 2015.

Great storytelling

“You have to be great storytellers, especially in b-to-b,” Mr. Goldberg said. “One of the biggest challenges we had this year was telling the full GE story in one spot, and capturing the wonder and magic of what we do. ‘Childlike Imagination’ was wonderful storytelling — having a little girl talk about what her mom does at GE. We also did a partnership with ‘The Tonight Show’ called ‘Fallonventions’ about kids who like to innovate. It became a story. There will be more and more of that in 2015.”

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